Teaching tactics is goal linked, influenced or influencing behaviour of the teacher the way he behaves in the instruction situation in working towards the development of the strategy. Units of teaching behaviour through which the teacher fulfils his various instructional relates with the students of his class from moment to moment the component of teaching behaviour through which the teacher, the student and the subject matter interact
Meaning of Teaching tactics
When teaching is organized, the teacher should, at first select appropriate teaching tactics. Teaching tactics are more comprehensive than the teaching strategies that is why a teaching tactic can be used in many teaching strategies. In one strategy by using one or more teaching tactics the contents can be made easy, precise and understandable. It means to say that the teaching tactics make the knowledge stable. Hence for the qualitative progress of teaching, we use various tactics according the conditions or learning structure. In content analysis while the subject matter is analyzed it is divided in to sub-parts. After this, each sub part is divided in to various essential elements and these are arranged in a sequence. Remember each element of the subject matter has its own structure.
The teacher selects teaching strategy, tactics and aids on the basis of the structure of the each element of the subject-matter. In other words the structure of each element subject matter acts as the norm or a criterion in the selection of teaching strategy, tactic and aid. It’s reason is that we can present the structure of each element of the subject matter only by applying or using teaching strategy. Hence the teacher should keep in mind the learning structure while selecting the teaching tactic. The knowledge of learning structure is essential in order to select appropriate teaching tactic.
Types of learning structure and teaching tactic.
- Signal learning structure and teaching tactics
- Chain learning structure and teaching tactis
- Multiple Discrimination learning structure and teaching tactis.
- Concept learning structure ad teaching tactics
- Principle learning structure and teaching tactics
Chain learning structure and teaching tactics
The chain learning structure is the sequence of facts and symbols learnt earlier. The chain is sometimes formed from the verbal activities such as poetic recitation and sometime motor activity such as cycling.
The Chain learning structure is of three types.
- Progressive chain
- Rote learning
- Retrogressive chain.
In the progressive chain starting from signals we reached at the end of the chain.
In the rote learning, the chain is acquired by cramming.
In the retrogressive chain, we start from the last activity, and then reach to the beginning of the chain.
Out of these three tactics retrogressive chain is more effective because it function as reinforcement and make possible to acquire efficiency in the task. Chain learning is based on the work of Skinner's of S-R theory and Gagne’s hierarchy learning theory. Reinforcement is the key element in Skinner's S-R theory. A reinforcer is anything that strengthens the desired response. It could be verbal praise, a good grade or a feeling of increased accomplishment or satisfaction.
Concept learning, also known as category learning and concept attainment, is largely based on the works of the cognitive psychologist Jerome Bruner.
Concept learning structure and Teaching Tactics
In the Concept learning structure capacities of generalization of those groups of actions are created in the pupils which look different externally. Remember that such groups are different from each other but they have similar pecularity which make it easy to identify their basic concept. For example Mausamees, orange, lemon etc, are different from their outer coverings point of view but each fruit is juicy. The pupils can understand this concept very easily. Attention is to be paid that the pupils may identify or understand the concepts by trial and error method. But they must know the signal and chain structures. Only in that situation they would be able to generalize. In the concept learning structure, the teacher should present various stimuli but relevant to the stimuli so that all the pupils may generalize something regarding that concept. Then he should create such situations before the pupils so that they may differentiate two confusing concepts. Hence in the concept learning structure the teacher should use the following two tactics.
Ø Generalization within the class.
Ø Discrimination between classes
Advance Educational Technology By Ram Nath Sharma and S.S.Chandra.
Essential of edcucational Technology By Mangal.