Teaching is an important part of the process of education. Its special function is to impart knowledge, develop understanding and skill. Teaching is usually associated with 3 R’s i.e. Reading, writing and arithmetic imparting knowledge of school subjects.
Definitions of teaching
“The art of assisting another to learn providing of information and of appropriate situations, conditions or activities designed to facilitate learning.”
According to world book encyclopedia-
“The process by which one person helps other achieves knowledge, skill and aptitudes.”
According to John B. Hugh:
Teaching is an activity with four phases: a curriculum planning phase, an instructing phase, a measuring phase and an evaluate phase.
NATOMY /STRUCTURE OF TEACHING: THREE VARIABLES
Structure of teaching consists of three variables which operate in the process of teaching and create learning conditions or situations.
These are classified as under:
1. Teacher as an independent variable.
2. Students as dependent variable.
3. Content and strategy of presentation as intervening variables.
1. Teacher as an independent variable.
The teacher plans the role of independent variables. Students are dependent on him in the teaching process. The teacher does the planning, organizing, leading and controlling of teaching for bringing about behavioral changes in the students. He is free to perform various activities for providing learning experiences to students.
2. Students as dependent variable.
The student is required to act according to the planning and organization of the teacher. Teaching activities of the teacher influence the learning of the students.
3. Content and strategy of presentation as intervening variables:
The intervening variables lead to interaction between the teachers and the students. The content determines the mode of presentation-telling, showing and doing etc.
HASES OF TEACHING
Teaching is a complex task. For performing this task, a systematic planning is needed.
ü Teaching is to be considered in terms of various steps and the different steps constituting the process are called the phases of teaching.
ü If we want to obtain a complete description of the teaching activities, we must consider what the teacher does before and after his regular teaching in the class.
We can divide the teaching act into three phases of teaching as shown below:
Pre – active phase of teaching
In the pre-active phase of teaching, the planning of teaching is carried over. This phase includes all those activities which a teacher performs before class-room teaching or before entering the class- room. Hence, the following activities are included in the pre-active phase of teaching-
1. Fixation of goals.
2. Decision making about the subject matter.
3. Arranging/ sequencing the elements of content for presentation.
4. Decision about the strategies of teaching.
5. Distribution of teaching strategies.
The above activities can be explained in short as follows-
1. Fixation of goals: First of all, the teacher determines the teaching objectives which are then defined in the form of behavioral changes. Thus, he ascertains the teaching objectives and what changes he requires in the pupils by achieving those objectives. These objectives are of two types-
· In the form of entering behaviours of the pupils.
· In the form of terminal behaviours of the pupils.
It is remarkable that these objectives are determined according to the psychology of the pupils and needs of the school and society.
2. Decision making about the subject matter: After fixing the teaching objectives, the teacher makes decisions about that content which is to be presented before the pupils and as a result he wants to bring the changes in their behaviours. This decision is taken by the teacher while focusing on the following points-
· What is the need of the curriculum proposed by the teacher for the pupils?
· What is the terminal behaviour of the pupils?
· Why the pupils need it to learn?
· What level of motivation can be effective for the pupils?
· By which methods the teacher should evaluate the knowledge related to the subject-matter?
3. Arranging/ sequencing the elements of content for presentation: After making decisions regarding the contents to be presented to the pupils, the teacher arranges the elements of content in a logical and psychological sequence so that the arrangement of content-elements may assist in transfer of learning.
4. Decision making about the strategies of teaching: After sequencing the contents, the teacher makes decisions regarding the proper methods and strategies keeping in view the contents and the level of the pupils with the help of which the contents and the level of the pupils with the help of which the contents can be marked on the brain of the pupils very easily.
Hence, during the teacher’s training, the emphasis should be on the development of this skill, so that, after training, the teaching objectives can be achieved after making decisions about appropriate methods and strategies.
5. Distribution of teaching strategies: Decision-making regarding the teaching methods and strategies for presenting the sequenced contents to the students is not sufficient. But the teacher is also to decide how and when he will make use of which method and strategy during the class-room teaching.
In other words, what type of questions he will ask the pupils? When and where will he use the chart or map? When will he deliver lecture? When and how will he use the black board? And, when will he ask the evaluative questions? etc.
All the above activities should be determined by the teacher at the pre-active stage.
INTERACTIVE PHASE OF TEACHING
According to the P.W. Jackson
“The teacher provides pupil verbal stimulation of various kinds, makes explanations, ask questions, listen to the student’s response and provide guidance”.
All those activities which are performed by a teacher after entering in a class are clubbed (to combine together) under inter-active phase of teaching. Generally these activities are concerned with the presentation and delivery of the content in a class.
The following activities are included in the inter-active phase of teaching-
1. Sizing up of the class.
2. Diagnosis of the learners.
3. Action and reaction of achievement.
1. Sizing up of the class: As the teacher enters the classroom, first of all he
perceives the size of the class. He throws his eyes on all the pupils of the class in a few moments. He comes to know the pupils who can help him in his teaching and the pupils who can create a problem for him as a result of this perception.
He can recognize those pupils who are to discourage him and those who are to encourage him by their face-reading. In this way, the teacher can feel the class-size in a few moments.
In the same way, the pupils can feel the personality of the teacher in a few seconds. Hence, at this stage, the teacher should look like a teacher. He should possess all those characteristic which are supposed to be present in a good teacher. Here, it can be summed up that teacher should be efficient and effective.
2. Diagnosis of the learners: After having a feeling of class-size, the teacher makes efforts to know how much the new comers or pupils have previous knowledge. He tries to know this thing in the following three areas-
a. Abilities of learners.
b. Interests and attitudes of learners.
c. Academic background of learners.
The teacher starts teaching activities after diagnosing by questioning in the following sequence-
1. Action and reaction or Achievement: two types of activities are involved in the teaching-
Both these activities occur between the teacher and the pupils. Both these activities are known as verbal interaction. In other words, when a teacher performs some activities, the pupils react him or when pupils perform some activities, the teacher reacts those activities and thus the inter-action of the teaching by the following diagram.
The teachers performs the following activities in order to analyze the nature of verbal and non-verbal inter-action of teaching activities-
a. Selection and presentation of stimuli.
b. Feedback and reinforcement.
c. Deployment of strategies.
a. Selection and presentation of stimuli: The motive or new knowledge is a process of
teaching. It can be verbal or non-verbal. The teacher should be aware of the motive which would prove effective and which would not be so for a particular teaching situation.
The teacher should select the appropriate stimulus as soon as the situation arises and an effort should be made to control the undesired activities to create the situation and for desired activities.
After selecting the stimuli, the teacher should present them before the pupils. The teacher should present that form of the stimulus which can motivate the pupils for learning. During such presentation of stimuli, the teacher should keep in mind the form context and order of the stimuli.
b. Feedback and reinforcement: Feedback or reinforcement is that condition which increases the possibility for accepting a particular response in future. In other words those conditions which increase the possibility of occurrence of a particular response are termed as feedback or reinforcement. These conditions may be of two types which are as follows-
· Positive reinforcement.
· Negative reinforcement.
· Positive reinforcement: These are the conditions which increase the possibility of recurrence of desired behavior or response.
· Negative response: These are the conditions in which the possibility of recurrence of the undesired behavior or response is decreased, such as punishment or reprimanding etc.
Reinforcement is used for three purposes. These are –
· For strengthening the response.
· For changing the response, and
· Modifying or correcting the response.
c. Deployment of strategies: The teaching activities are directly related to the
learning conditions. Therefore, at the time of interaction the teacher produces such activities and conditions by the reinforcement strategies which effect the activities of the pupils.
The development of the teaching strategies turns the pupil-teacher interaction impressive. From the very moment, the teacher starts the teaching task and till the movement, the teacher starts the teaching task and till the movement that task goes on, the verbal and non-verbal behaviours of the pupils are controlled by the reinforcement strategies and cooperates in presenting the contents in an impressive way.
In the deployment of the teaching strategies, three areas should be considered. These are –
· Presentation of subject-matter,
· Levels of learning.
· Level or context of learners, their background, needs, motivation, attitudes, cooperation and opposition.
In the interactive stage, these activities are carried on not only by the teacher, but also carried on by the pupils. The pupils also feel about the teacher and diagnose his personality as a teacher. In order to be impressed themselves and to impress the teaching, they deploy the various strategies by selecting the different stimuli.
Operations at the interactive phase
We can present the activities of the interaction through the following chart-
Post-active phase of teaching:
In this phase, as the teaching task sums up, the teacher asks the questions from the pupils, verbally or in written form, to measure the behaviours of the pupils so that their achievements may be evaluated correctly.
Therefore, evaluation aspect includes all those activities which can evaluate the achievements of the pupils and attainment of the objectives. Without evaluation teaching is an incomplete process. It is related with both teaching and learning. The following activities are considered in the post-active of teaching-
1. Defining the exact dimensions of the changes caused by teaching.
2. Selecting appropriate testing devices and techniques.
3. Changing the strategies in terms of evidences gathered.
1. Defining the exact dimensions of the changes caused by teaching: At the end of the teaching,the teacher defines the exact dimensions of changes in the behaviours as a result of teaching which is termed as criterion behaviour. For this the teacher compares the actual behavioural changes in the pupils with their expected behavioural changes.
If he deserves the desired behavioural changes in the maximum numbers of pupils, he concludes that his teaching strategies and tactics worked effectively with the help of which teaching objectives have been achieved.
2. Selecting appropriate testing devices and techniques: The teacher selects those testing devices and techniques to compare the actual behavioural changes with the desired behavioural change which are reliable and valid and which can evaluate the cognitive and non-cognitive aspects of the pupils. Therefore, criterion tests are more preferred than the performance tests.
3. Changing the strategies in terms of evidences gathered: While, by using the reliable and valid testing devices, the teacher gets the knowledge regarding the performances of pupils and attainment of objectives on one hand, he also gets clarity regarding his instruction, teaching strategies and tactics on the other hand.
He also comes to know about the required modification in the teaching strategies and situations along with the drawbacks of his teaching in order to achieve the teaching objectives. In this way, through evaluation, the teaching activities are diagnosed and these can be made effective by necessary modifications and changes in them.
Conclusion: It is evident from the above description that to achieve the teaching objectives, ‘the three aspects of teaching activities should be arranged in such a way that when the changes occur in the thinking and working systems of pupils, creative thinking should also be developed in them so that, by recognizing reality, they may become efficient in co-ordination their external experiences with their inner organization.