Tuesday, 22 March 2011


Teaching  is an important part of the process of education. Its special function is to impart knowledge, develop understanding and skill.
The traditional explanation of teaching that which equates teaching with telling is not acceptable to the educators of today . according to  the changed concept, teaching is to cause the child to learn and acquire the desired knowledge, skills and also desirable ways of living in the society. The main aim of teaching is to help the child to respond to his environment in an effective way.
The supreme art of teaching is to awaken joy in creative expression and knowledge
                                                                                      ALBERT EINSTEIN
Teaching is a system of actions involving an agent, an end in view, and a situation including two sets of factors those over which the agent has no control( class size, size of classroom, physical characteristics of pupils etc.) and those that he can modify ( ways of asking questions almost instruction and way of structuring information)
                                                                                      B.O Smith
Teaching is a process by which teacher and students create a shared environment including set  of values and beliefs which in turn color their reality
                                                                                      JOYCE and WEIL
Teaching is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement of learning
The definition has four key words which need explanation stimulation which means to cause motivation in learner to learn new things. It is to create an urge to learn. Direction means that teaching is not haphazard activity but it is a goal directed activity. Which leads to predetermined behavior. Direction also means that the activities of the learner in teaching are directed and controlled, keeping into consideration of  the economy of time an d efficiency of learning. Guidance means to guide the learner to develop his capabilities, skills, attitudes and knowledge to the maximum for adequate adjustment in the external environment and the last keyword  is the encouragement of learning to encourage the learner to acquire maximum learning.
Psychologists and  educators are explained  it  from different angles some explanations are as follows:
1.     Teaching is communication between two or more persons, who influence each other by ideas and learn something in the process of interaction.
2.     Teaching is to fill in the mind of the learner by information and knowledge of facts for future use.
3.     Teaching is a process in which learner, teacher, curriculum and other variables are organized in a systematic way to attain some pre- determined goal.
4.     Teaching is to cause motivation to learn.
It includes the provision of desirable information
          The human knowledge is going on increasing since the rise of civilization. He has leant all this by trial and error, insight and  imitation. We should provide desired information to the students in a well organized from regarding this store of knowledge.
Causes to learn
A good teaching is not merely to impart information’s to the students, but it is also to arouse the will of self learning in them. The teacher should explore the interests, attitudes, capacities, competencies and needs of the pupils and guide them accordingly. From this point of view, the teaching should be so much natural and interesting that the pupils get motivated for self learning.
Needs efficient planning
          The pupils cannot be taught everything all the time. Various stages are meant for achieving the different aspects of knowledge. Also the pupils have different interests, attitudes, competencies and needs on the basis of individual differences. So there must be some useful planning of teaching in view of the above things.
Provides opportunity for activity
The teacher should study the pupikls basic instincts and direct these activities for the purposeful and useful directions. In this way it is the duty of the teacher to construct such an environment before the pupils sothat  pupil himself goes on acquiring , by doing desirable activities, the best and useful experiences.
The successful teaching essentially requires emotional stability and security.
Teaching doesnot mean forceful imposition of knowledge in the pupil’s brain. The teaching and learning process is an alive and active process. Hence the desirable results can only be achieved  when the teaching is based on the cooperation of the teacher and the pupil. Good teaching is based on the cooperation of both the teacher and the pupil.
Organization of learning
Marshall has written that the organization of learning means the unification of all the components of teaching. Hence activities of the teacher and the pupil should be unified. It is essential to include all tasks, teaching methods and conditions in these activities. Good teaching is the organization of learning.
Modern ages are the age of democracy. These days the real education is considered to be that education which prepares the pupil for life by life. In the light of this teacher should prepare students for democracy democratically
1.     Creating learning situations
2.     Motivating the child to learn
3.     Arranging for conditions which assist in the growth of the childs mind and body
4.     Utilize the initiative and play urges of the children to facilitate learning
5.     Turning the children with the nobility of thoughts,feelings and actions
6.     Giving information and explaining it
7.     Diagnosing learning problems
8.     Making curricular material
9.     Evaluating recording and reporting
          Swami Vivekananda said “the true teacher is he who can immediately come down to the level of the student”
1.     Good teaching is providing appropriate activities and experience for learning
2.     Good teaching involves skill in guiding learning
3.     Good teaching is co operative
4.     Good teaching is humanistic
5.     Good teaching is democratic
1.     Principle of using previous knowledge
2.     Principle of  providing for individual difference
3.     Principle of readiness
4.     Principle of meaningfulness
5.     Principle defining specific objectives of the lesson
6.     Principle of proceeding from simple to complex
7.     Principle of proceeding from concrete to abstract
8.     Principle of proceeding from general to specific
9.     Principle of proceeding from known to unknown

LEARNING: concept
Learning is the lifelong process of transforming information and experience into knowledge, skills, behaviors, and attitudes.
Learning is acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences and may involve synthesizing different types of information. The ability to learn is possessed by humans, animals and some machines. Progress over time tends to follow learning curves.
Human learning may occur as part of education, personal development, or training. It may be goal-oriented and may be aided by motivation. The study of how learning occurs is part of neuropsychology, educational psychology, learning theory, and pedagogy.
Learning may occur as a result of habituation or classical conditioning, seen in many animal species, or as a result of more complex activities such as play, seen only in relatively intelligent animals.   Learning may occur consciously or without conscious awareness. There is evidence for human behavioral learning prenatally, in which habituation has been observed as early as 32 weeks into gestation, indicating that the central nervous system is sufficiently developed and primed for learning and memory to occur very early on in development.

Learning is the process by which behavior  is originated or changes through practice  and training”
                                                                             Woodworth, R.S
Learning is the modification in behavior  to meet environmental requirements”
Learning according to the psychologists and educators:
          † Modification of behavior
          †Practice for behavior
          †New ways of doing things
          †Attainment of a goal
          †Changes in the individual through changes in the environment
Learning is growth
The word growth is generally associated with the body which is growing but through the mental growth of the learner
Learning is adjustment
 Learning helps individual to adjust himself adequately to the new situation.
Learning is organizing experience
Learning is not mere addition to knowledge. It is  the reorganization of facts
Learning is active
Learning does not takesplace  with out a purpose and selfactivity.
Learning is both individual and social
Learning is the product of the environment
Environment plays an important part in the growth and development of the individual. Environment should be healthy and rich in educative possibilities.
True learning affects the conduct of the learner
          There is a change in the mental structure of the learner after every experience



Simple non-associative learning


psychology, habituation is an example of non-associative learning in which there is a progressive diminution of behavioral response probability with repetition stimulus. An animal first responds to a stimulus, but if it is neither rewarding nor harmful the animal reduces subsequent responses. One example of this can be seen in small song birds—if a stuffed owl (or similar predator) is put into the cage, the birds initially react to it as though it were a real predator. Soon the birds react less, showing habituation. If another stuffed owl is introduced (or the same one removed and re-introduced), the birds react to it again as though it were a predator, demonstrating that it is only a very specific stimulus that is habituated to (namely, one particular unmoving owl in one place). Habituation has been shown in essentially every species of animal, including the large protozoan Stentor coeruleus


Main article: Sensitization
Sensitization is an example of non-associative learning in which the progressive amplification of a response follows repeated administrations of a stimulus (Bell et al., 1995). An everyday example of this mechanism is the repeated tonic stimulation of peripheral nerves that will occur if a person rubs his arm continuously. After a while, this stimulation will create a warm sensation that will eventually turn painful. The pain is the result of the progressively amplified synaptic response of the peripheral nerves warning the person that the stimulation is harmful. Sensitization is thought to underlie both adaptive as well as maladaptive learning processes in the organism.

Associative learning

Associative learning is the process by which an element is taught through association with a separate, pre-occurring element. It is also referred to as classical conditioning. Honeybees display associative learning through the proboscis extension reflex paradigm.
Operant conditioning is the use of consequences to modify the occurrence and form of behavior. Operant conditioning is distinguished from Pavlovian conditioning in that operant conditioning uses reinforcement/punishment to alter an action-outcome association. In contrast Pavlovian conditioning involves strengthening of the stimulus-outcome association.

Classical conditioning

The typical paradigm for classical conditioning involves repeatedly pairing an unconditioned stimulus (which unfailingly evokes a reflexive response) with another previously neutral stimulus (which does not normally evoke the response). Following conditioning, the response occurs both to the unconditioned stimulus and to the other, unrelated stimulus (now referred to as the "conditioned stimulus"). The response to the conditioned stimulus is termed a conditioned response. The classic example is Pavlov and his dogs. Meat powder naturally will make a dog salivate when it is put into a dog's mouth; salivating is a reflexive response to the meat powder. Meat powder is the unconditioned stimulus (US) and the salivation is the unconditioned response (UR). Then Pavlov rang a bell before presenting the meat powder. The first time Pavlov rang the bell, the neutral stimulus, the dogs did not salivate, but once he put the meat powder in their mouths they began to salivate. After numerous pairings of the bell, and then food the dogs learned that the bell was a signal that the food was about to come and began to salivate just when the bell was rang. Once this occurs the bell becomes the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the salivation to the bell is the conditioned response (CR).


Main article: Imprinting (psychology)
Imprinting is the term used in psychology and ethology to describe any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject.

Observational learning

Main article: Observational learning
The learning process most characteristic of humans is imitation; one's personal repetition of an observed behavior, such as a dance. Humans can copy three types of information simultaneously: the demonstrator's goals, actions, and environmental outcomes (results, see Emulation (observational learning)). Through copying these types of information, (most) infants will tune into their surrounding culture.

Play (activity)

Play generally describes behavior which has no particular end in itself, but improves performance in similar situations in the future. This is seen in a wide variety of vertebrates besides humans, but is mostly limited to mammals and birds. Cats are known to play with a ball of string when young, who gives them experience with catching prey. Besides inanimate objects, animals may play with other members of their own species or other animals, such as orcas playing with seals they have caught. Play involves a significant cost to animals, such as increased vulnerability to predators and the risk of injury and possibly infection. It also consumes energy, so there must be significant benefits associated with play for it to have evolved. Play is generally seen in younger animals, suggesting a link with learning. However, it may also have other benefits not associated directly with learning, for example improving physical fitness.


Enculturation is the process by which a person learns the requirements of their native culture by which he or she is surrounded, and acquires values and behaviors that are appropriate or necessary in that culture. The influences which as part of this process limit, direct or shape the individual, whether deliberately or not, include parents, other adults, and peers.  If successful, enculturation results in competence in the language, values and rituals of the culture. (Compare acculturation, where a person is within a culture different to their normal culture, and learns the requirements of this different culture).

Multimedia learning

Multimedia learning is where a person uses both auditory and visual stimuli to learn information (Mayer 2001). This type of learning relies on dual-coding theory (Paivio 1971).

E-learning and augmented learning

Electronic learning or e-learning is a general term used to refer to Internet-based networked computer-enhanced learning. A specific and always more diffused e-learning is mobile learning (m-learning), which uses different mobile telecommunication equipment, such as cellular phones.
When a learner interacts with the e-learning environment, it's called augmented learning. By adapting to the needs of individuals, the context-driven instruction can be dynamically tailored to the learner's natural environment. Augmented digital content may include text, images, video, audio (music and voice). By personalizing instruction, augmented learning has been shown to improve learning performance for a lifetime.

Rote learning

Rote learning is a technique which avoids understanding the inner complexities and inferences of the subject that is being learned and instead focuses on memorizing the material so that it can be recalled by the learner exactly the way it was read or heard. The major practice involved in rote learning techniques is learning by repetition, based on the idea that one will be able to quickly recall the meaning of the material the more it is repeated. Rote learning is used in diverse areas, from mathematics to music to religion. Although it has been criticized by some schools of thought, rote learning is a necessity in many situations.

Informal learning

Informal learning occurs through the experience of day-to-day situations (for example, one would learn to look ahead while walking because of the danger inherent in not paying attention to where one is going). It is learning from life, during a meal at table with parents, play, exploring, etc.

Formal learning

A depiction of the world's oldest continually operating university, the University of Bologna, Italy
Formal learning is learning that takes place within a teacher-student relationship, such as in a school system.

Nonformal learning

Nonformal learning is organized learning outside the formal learning system. For example: learning by coming together with people with similar interests and exchanging viewpoints, in clubs or in (international) youth organizations, workshops.

Dialogic learning

Dialogic learning is a type of learning based on dialogue.

Domains of learning

Benjamin Bloom has suggested three domains of learning:
  • Cognitive – To recall, calculate, discuss, analyze, problem solve, etc.
  • Psychomotor – To dance, swim, ski, dive, drive a car, ride a bike, etc.
  • Affective – To like something or someone, love, appreciate, fear, hate, worship, etc.
These domains are not mutually exclusive. For example, in learning to play chess, the person will have to learn the rules of the game (cognitive domain); but he also has to learn how to set up the chess pieces on the chessboard and also how to properly hold and move a chess piece (psychomotor). Furthermore, later in the game the person may even learn to love the game itself, value its applications in life, and appreciate its history (affective domain).

Who is to learn- child
From whom to learn- teacher, environment
Why to learn- aims of teaching
What to learn- acquisition of knowledge, skills etc.
How to learn- methodology
When to learn- motivation
Where to learn- classroom ,play field
The Learning and Teaching System 
"Teaching" as an activity does not exist: or at least it is meaningless to think about it in isolation. There is always an interaction between the Teacher, the Learner and the Subject being taught.
 This is not a wholly banal point, because;
  • The Subject is not neutral: it imposes its own discipline. Early mathematics is linear, for example, because you have to learn to count before you can do anything else. Some other subjects allow you to sequence the curriculum with more freedom.
  • The Learner has her or his own attributes, motivation and baggage, and these may or may not "fit" with the subject and/or the teacher. The Learner is usually also part of a wider class group of other learners, which may help or hinder (or indeed be irrelevant to) the learning process.
  • The Teacher, too has her or his own values, preferred approach to learning, history of learning the Subject, and level of skill.
  • All this takes place within a Context, which may define the reasons for the teaching-learning (compulsory schooling and the National Curriculum), the desired outcome (expressive, as in "learning for its own sake" or instrumental "I need the qualification for a better job"), and the power relationship between the Teacher and the Learner(s).
          Essentials of educational technology
                                                          J.C AGGARWAL
          Educational technology
                                                          DR. Y. K SINGH

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