Tuesday, 22 March 2011

TEACHING STRATEGIES

Meaning:

v  The term strategy is has been used popularly in the case of battle or war. According to B.O.Smith teaching strategy refers to a pattern of teaching acts that serves to attain certain outcomes.

v A teaching strategy is a purposefully conceived and determined plan of action.

v Teaching strategy is very much important for smoothed transaction of curriculum.

Definition:

According to strasser(1964);

Teaching strategy is generalized plan for a lesson or lessons which include structure, desired learner behavior, in terms of the goals of instruction, and an outline of tactics necessary to implement the strategy.

AIMS OF TEACHING STATEGIES

A.   Ensuring that certain learnings will be acquired in as brief a time as possible.

B.   Inducing students to engage in exchange of ideas.

C.   Minimizing the number of wrong responses as the students attempt to learn a concept, principle etc.

D.   Ensuring the attainment of certain content objectives.

*    PRICIPLES OF TEACHING STRATEGY BUILDING.

*    Principle of selection.

*    Principle of motivation.

*    Principle of maxims of teaching.

*    Principle of variety.

*    Principle of correlation with     environment.

*    Principle of feedback

*    Principle of individual difference.

*    Principle of child’s all round development.

Institutions of higher learning across the nation are responding to political, economic, social and technological pressures to be more responsive to students' needs and more concerned about how well students are prepared to assume future societal roles. Faculty are already feeling the pressure to lecture less, to make learning environments more interactive, to integrate technology into the learning experience, and to use collaborative learning strategies when appropriate.
Some of the more prominent strategies are outlined below. For more information about the use of these and other pedagogical approaches, contact the Program in Support of Teaching and Learning.

Lecture. For many years, the lecture method was the most widely used instructional strategy in college classrooms. Nearly 80% of all U.S. college classrooms in the late 1970s reported using some form of the lecture method to teach students (Cashin, 1990). Although the usefulness of other teaching strategies is being widely examined today, the lecture still remains an important way to communicate information.
Used in conjunction with active learning teaching strategies, the traditional lecture can be an effective way to achieve instructional goals. The advantages of the lecture approach are that it provides a way to communicate a large amount of information to many listeners, maximizes instructor control and is non-threatening to students. The disadvantages are that lecturing minimizes feedback from students, assumes an unrealistic level of student understanding and comprehension, and often disengages students from the learning process causing information to be quickly forgotten.
The following recommendations can help make the lecture approach more effective (Cashin, 1990):
1. Fit the lecture to the audience
2. Focus your topic - remember you cannot cover everything in one lecture
3. Prepare an outline that includes 5-9 major points you want to cover in one lecture
4. Organize your points for clarity
5. Select appropriate examples or illustrations
6. Present more than one side of an issue and be sensitive to other perspectives
7. Repeat points when necessary
8. Be aware of your audience - notice their feedback
9. Be enthusiastic - you don’t have to be an entertainer but you should be excited by your topic.
(from Cashin, 1990, pp. 60-61)

Case Method. Providing an opportunity for students to apply what they learn in the classroom to real-life experiences has proven to be an effective way of both disseminating and integrating knowledge. The case method is an instructional strategy that engages students in active discussion about issues and problems inherent in practical application. It can highlight fundamental dilemmas or critical issues and provide a format for role playing ambiguous or controversial scenarios.
Course content cases can come from a variety of sources. Many faculty have transformed current events or problems reported through print or broadcast media into critical learning experiences that illuminate the complexity of finding solutions to critical social problems. The case study approach works well in cooperative learning or role playing environments to stimulate critical thinking and awareness of multiple perspectives.

Discussion. There are a variety of ways to stimulate discussion. For example, some faculty begin a lesson with a whole group discussion to refresh students’ memories about the assigned reading(s). Other faculty find it helpful to have students list critical points or emerging issues, or generate a set of questions stemming from the assigned reading(s). These strategies can also be used to help focus large and small group discussions.
Obviously, a successful class discussion involves planning on the part of the instructor and preparation on the part of the students. Instructors should communicate this commitment to the students on the first day of class by clearly articulating course expectations. Just as the instructor carefully plans the learning experience, the students must comprehend the assigned reading and show up for class on time, ready to learn.

Active Learning. Meyers and Jones (1993) define active learning as learning environments that allow “students to talk and listen, read, write, and reflect as they approach course content through problem-solving exercises, informal small groups, simulations, case studies, role playing, and other activities -- all of which require students to apply what they are learning” (p. xi). Many studies show that learning is enhanced when students become actively involved in the learning process. Instructional strategies that engage students in the learning process stimulate critical thinking and a greater awareness of other perspectives. Although there are times when lecturing is the most appropriate method for disseminating information, current thinking in college teaching and learning suggests that the use of a variety of instructional strategies can positively enhance student learning. Obviously, teaching strategies should be carefully matched to the teaching objectives of a particular lesson. For more information about teaching strategies, see the list of college teaching references in Appendix N.
Assessing or grading students' contributions in active learning environments is somewhat problematic. It is extremely important that the course syllabus explicitly outlines the evaluation criteria for each assignment whether individual or group. Students need and want to know what is expected of them. For more information about grading, see the Evaluating Student Work section contained in this Guide.

Cooperative Learning. Cooperative Learning is a systematic pedagogical strategy that encourages small groups of students to work together for the achievement of a common goal. The term 'Collaborative Learning' is often used as a synonym for cooperative learning when, in fact, it is a separate strategy that encompasses a broader range of group interactions such as developing learning communities, stimulating student/faculty discussions, and encouraging electronic exchanges (Bruffee, 1993). Both approaches stress the importance of faculty and student involvement in the learning process.
When integrating cooperative or collaborative learning strategies into a course, careful planning and preparation are essential. Understanding how to form groups, ensure positive interdependence, maintain individual accountability, resolve group conflict, develop appropriate assignments and grading criteria, and manage active learning environments are critical to the achievement of a successful cooperative learning experience. Before you begin, you may want to consult several helpful resources which are contained in Appendix N. In addition, the Program in Support of Teaching and Learning can provide faculty with supplementary information and helpful techniques for using cooperative learning or collaborative learning in college classrooms.

 Discussion
¨ For motivating students to think.
¨ For reviewing area already dealt with.
¨ For promoting better comprehension.
*    Demonstration
q For showing manipulative operations of any equipment.
q For explaining a process.
*    Programmed Instruction
q For enabling the student to learn at his own space.
q For providing scope for self evaluation
q For immediate feedback.

Integrating Technology. Today, educators realize that computer literacy is an important part of a student's education. Integrating technology into a course curriculum when appropriate is proving to be valuable for enhancing and extending the learning experience for faculty and students. Many faculty have found electronic mail to be a useful way to promote student/student or faculty/student communication between class meetings. Others use listserves or on-line notes to extend topic discussions and explore critical issues with students and colleagues, or discipline- specific software to increase student understanding of difficult concepts.
Currently, our students come to us with varying degrees of computer literacy. Faculty who use technology regularly often find it necessary to provide some basic skill level instruction during the first week of class. In the future, we expect that need to decline. For help in integrating technology into a course curriculum contact the Program in Support of Teaching and Learning or the Instructional Development Office (IDO) at 703-993-3141. In addition, watch for information throughout the year about workshops and faculty conversations on the integration of technology, teaching and learning.

Distance Learning. Distance learning is not a new concept. We have all experienced learning outside of a structured classroom setting through television, correspondence courses, etc. Distance learning or distance education as a teaching pedagogy, however, is an important topic of discussion on college campuses today. Distance learning is defined as 'any form of teaching and learning in which the teacher and learner are not in the same place at the same time' (Gilbert, 1995).
Obviously, information technology has broadened our concept of the learning environment. It has made it possible for learning experiences to be extended beyond the confines of the traditional classroom. Distance learning technologies take many forms such as computer simulations, interactive collaboration/discussion, and the creation of virtual learning environments connecting regions or nations. Components of distance learning such as email, listserves, and interactive software have also been useful additions to the educational setting.
For more information about distance learning contact the Instructional Development Office at 703-993-3141 (Fairfax Campus) and watch for workshops and faculty discussions on the topic throughout the year.

E

 

ffective Teaching Strategies


 
"The Role Playing Process:
1.     Make sure the students define a situation that is relevant and important to them--for example, a situation in which they may be offered a drug. Get details such as the setting and number and types of people involved.
2.     Set the stage by arranging furniture, indicating where 'doors' might be located.
3.     Prepare the audience by giving them specific questions to be prepared to answer at the conclusion of the role play. Examples:
(a) Would this work in real life?
(b) How would you have handled the situation?
4.     There are numerous ways to select participants. Discuss ideas.
5.     Begin the role play, stopping it if it is unrealistic, going nowhere, or has accomplished its purpose.
6.     Ask questions of the participants and audience.
7.     Reenact the role play, if necessary, using a variation of the situation, new participants, feedback provided to improve a skill. . .
Suggested situations: refusing a drug offer, encouraging a friend to stop smoking, talking to a teacher about an assignment, requesting help from a parent, stopping a drunk friend from driving."
"Socratic Instruction:
Note that one of the most effective strategies for teaching about alcohol and other drugs is Socratic instruction (questioning). Socratic questioning fosters critical thinking, evaluation, and knowledge application in students and should be used as frequently as possible in assignments and class discussions.
8.     Allow 'wait time' for thinking. Give students time to consider the question and their response before requesting them to answer.
9.     Avoid yes-no questions. They lead nowhere and do not promote thinking nor discussion.
10.                        Be sure students have the needed background and resources to respond to the questions posed. It is unfair and detrimental to their progress to not accept their levels of knowledge and experience.
11.                        Open-ended and closed questions are useful. Open-ended questions promote critical thinking, while closed questions can focus attention.
12.                        Include clarifying questions, demands and statements. They are as valid as questions are. Students may need guidance as they sift through possible answers.
13.                        Use questions from all levels of thinking. Help students to develop higher levels of critical thinking as well as the typical knowledge and comprehension levels."
"Small Group and Cooperative Learning:
14.                        Establish heterogeneous groups.
15.                        Establish group size.
16.                        Designate group work areas.
17.                        Designate specific responsibilities to group members.
18.                        Provide clear directions, time constraints, rules, procedures.
19.                        Provide necessary materials.
20.                        Establish leader selection process.
21.                        Minimize exchanges of information between groups.
22.                        Watch for conflict.
23.                        Encourage and praise group support."





q TACTICS
¨ The dictionary meaning of tactic is skillful use of available means to achieve an objective.
¨ It is the condition necessary for effective strategy.
¨ These conditions are;
¨ MOTIVE- student has to want something.
¨ CUE or STIMULUS- the student has to notice something.
¨ RESPONSE- the student has to do something.
¨ REWARD- the student has to get something.
¨ If particular tactics fulfills this entire requirement it leads acceptable successive strategy.
Different tactics are:
¨ MASTERY LEARNING.
¨ PROJECT-CENTERED APROACH.
¨ TEACHER-CENTERED CLASSROOM. 
  MASTERY LEARNING:
¨ Appeared during recent years. Put forward by Benjamin Bloom. As a tactic, mastery learning is best understood as a special case of criterion referenced instruction, in which the objective of instruction is more apparent to students and kept before the student until he/she has achieved it.
¨ While achieving it frequent feedback is given.
¨ Sufficient time is given according to the needs of the learner.
Project- centered approach:
¨ It mainly focuses on individual student.
¨ Coined by Kilpatrick
¨ The project may be in group or for individual.
¨ It fulfills all the requirements require for the effective strategy.                     



*    "Style"
¨  The way or manner (Method) in which something is said or done -
               American Heritage Dictionary
Ø Types of Teaching Styles

A. Keep Students Interested
- Excited teacher with loud voice and lots of energy
- Humor
- Change activities frequently
B. Respect Learners
C. Objective Driven.
Types of Teaching Styles
A. Keep Students Interested
B. Respect Learners
C. Objective Driven
          - Verbal teaching styles
          - Bibliotherapy: Use of written handouts and articles
Teaching Styles
Teacher’s experience              Learner’s experience
Assertive     Suggestive     Collaborative    Facilitative


Similarities between Suggestive and Collaborative Styles.
1       Joint effort between the teacher and learner.
2       Built in Needs Assessment
3       Deals with thinking skills.
Ø The Unit Study Approach:

      Takes a theme or topic and delves into it deeply over a period of time
Integrates some or all subjects into one study around a common theme
Many prepared unit study curricula are available
Example: Unit study on Birds-
      Language Arts: reading and writing about birds and about famous ornithologists,
      Science and Math: studying the parts, functions, and life cycles of birds and even the aerodynamics of flight,
      Social Studies: determining the migration paths, habitats, and ecological/sociological impact of birds,
      Art: sketching familiar birds, building bird houses or feeders.
Ø Traditional approach
¨ Strengths of the Traditional Approach
*
Everything is laid out for ease of use
*Follows a standardized scope and sequence
*Has definite milestones of accomplishment
*Testing and assigning grades is easy to do
¨ Weaknesses of the Traditional Approach
Ø Doesn't take into account individual learning styles, strengths, weaknesses or interests
Ø Assumes that there is a body of information that comprises as education and that this information can be broken down into daily increments
Ø Treats children's minds like containers to be filled with information
Ø Focuses on transmitting information through artificial learning experiences
Ø Is teacher-directed and chalkboard oriented
Ø Different aged students study different materials
Ø Expensive when teaching multiple children
Ø Discourages original, independent thinking
Ø Has a high "burn out" rate
¨ Summary of Teaching Styles
¨ “Verbal Teaching Styles” are value-neutral.
¨ No one style is unqualifiedly better or worse than another.
¨ Each “Teaching Style” has its own advantages and usefulness.
¨ The Key is flexibility.

Aggarwal, J.C. (2009). Essentials of Educational Technology (Second edition). New Delhi; Vikash publication.
 Khan, N. Educational technology. New Delhi; Rajat publication.
Sampat, k. et.al(2007). Introduction to Educational Technology. New Delhi; Sterling Publication.

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